A wide spectrum of clinical symptoms is associated with hMPV infection. In the general community, hMPV-infected adults mainly suffer from upper respiratory tract illnesses (common cold-like symptoms) such as cough, rhinorrhea, hoarseness, sore throat and sometimes fever. In hospitalised children, patients with underlying disease, immunocompromised individuals, and fragile elderly, hMPV disease may be more severe, involving the lower respiratory tract. Clinical diagnoses may range from rhinopharyngitis to bronchitis and pneumonia, and some patients may be admitted to intensive care units. In addition, diarrhea, vomiting, rash, febrile seizures, feeding difficulties, conjunctivitis and otitis media have all been reported. The wide spectrum of hMPV-induced illnesses reported thus far are similar to those caused by RSV and influenza virus infections.